The primary outcome was the prevalence of depression, as evaluated by various types of self-reported depression scales. This effect is partially explained by the efficacy of L-T4 treatment observed in some studies. SMD: standard mean differences. DeSA U. Abstract Background Although depression is associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, its relationship with subclinical hypothyroidism SCH is controversial.
Lithium increases platelet serine-9 phosphorylated GSK-3beta levels in drug-free bipolar disorder during depressive episodes.
Efficacy of anti-leishmania therapy in visceral leishmaniasis among HIV infected patients: a systematic review with indirect comparison. Figure 2.
Subclinical thyroid disease: scientific review and guidelines for diagnosis and management. J Neuroendocrinol.
A total of 21 studies were included in the qualitative analysis. Cd J Clin Psychiatry. Encourages teens to seek emotional support from other adults, school counselors, and youth support groups such as Alateen, and provides a resource list.
Gordon, J. Download PDF. Vishnoi, G. Thyroid stimulating hormone, cognitive impairment and depression in an older Korean population. The referral service is free of charge. Correspondence to Z.
Consistent with the diverse original reports, we applied different methods of evaluating the quality. The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Scientists concluded that administration of SSRIs in hypothyroid patients was safe [xiv]. We will be happy to hear your thoughts.
The methodological quality of the selected RCTs was evaluated according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions and depression on the following aspects: generation of random sequence, distribution concealment, blinding, incomplete consequence date description, free of selective reporting, and free of other bias. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Rockville MD
Binary logistic regression showed that patients with suicide attempts and psychiatric symptoms were more likely 4. Razvi, Hypoghyroidism. All data analyses were performed with Revman 5. Data extraction and quality assessment Two authors Zhao and Chen independently extracted the data from the original studies using a uniform standard procedure. Age Ageing. However, several limitations should be taken into consideration. Zhao, T.
Clinical characteristics and incidences of benign and malignant insulinoma using a national inpatient database in Japan. The current article by Kim et al. We performed a meta-analysis of the available evidence from cross-sectional reports and both prospective and retrospective studies investigating the relationship between SCH and depressive scale. Shan, Email: nc. Scientists concluded that depression and hypothyroidism have a strong relationship [viii].
Recently, many publications have investigated whether SCH is connected to a higher risk of cognitive damage and depression in older populations 26 — Both depression and hypothyroidism are common, particularly in older women, and there is a reasonable prevalence of overlap of two conditions. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. Psychiatry Res. Conclusions Overall, this meta-analysis indicates that SCH is not linked to depression, which was defined by a diagnosis of depression or an increase on the depressive scale. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology—a proposal for reporting.
Receive exclusive subbclinical and updates from Oxford Academic. X-axis: subclinical hypothyroidism and depression values equal to the aggravation on depressive tendency. A biologically plausible theory is that L-T4 may exert modulatory effects on the illness via an increase in serotonergic neurotransmission, specifically by reducing the sensitivity of 5-HT1A 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A autoreceptors in the raphe area and by increasing 5-HT2 receptor sensitivity
Of course, more research is needed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid and estrogen. X-axis: possitive values equal to the aggravation on depressive tendency. Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism SCH and depression. Two authors Zhao and Chen independently extracted the data from the original studies using a uniform standard procedure. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Although some studies reported that L-T4 treatment has the benefit of improving depressive symptoms, the pathophysiological role of thyroid hormones in depression remains unclear 37 —
The literature quality evaluation was conducted by means of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale Health status, psychological symptoms, mood, and cognition in L-thyroxine-treated hypothyroid subjects. Additionally, there was no link between thyroid hormone levels and an increased risk of incident depression in euthyroid participants. Conclusions Overall, this meta-analysis indicates that SCH is not linked to depression, which was defined by a diagnosis of depression or an increase on the depressive scale. Treatment for primary hypothyroidism: current approaches and future possibilities.
Importantly, our analysis indicated a clear negative impact of SCH in depression. There are several possible explanations.
Intwo meta-analyses failed to provide evidence supporting the association between SCH and cognitive impairment in older subjects 30 Effects of subclinical hypothyroidism treatment on psychiatric symptoms, muscular complaints, and quality of life.
This diagnosis is often overlooked especially when laboratory tests are not readily available, as these individuals with SCH tend to present with subtle and non-specific symptoms [ 9 ]. All extracted data were reviewed by HSL.
A forest plot was used to present the pooled OR value, and heterogeneity was evaluated using the I 2 statistic.
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Evidence shows that hypothyroidism is six times more common in women than it is hypothuroidism men [vi]. Studies show that subjects on thyroxine subclinical hypothyroidism poorer psychological wellbeing than their healthy counterparts with no thyroid diseases and it only confirms the relationship between hypothyroidism and depression. Supplementary Information accompanies this paper at Second, probable bias existed in the selection of the included studies, including quality problems in the original articles, inevitable heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding factors. Thyroid stimulating hormone, cognitive impairment and depression in an older Korean population. Marsh W. Is subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the elderly associated with depression or cognitive dysfunction?
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism SCH and depression. Villar H. Park, Y. In their study, mean scores of depressive symptoms were comparable between participants with SCH and euthyroid participants.
Strengths and limitations of this meta-analysis This analysis has hypothyroidisj main limitations. Selected studies were eligible if they met the following criteria: 1 SCH was confirmed by elevated TSH levels and circulating thyroid hormones within the normal range; and 2 the study was a cross-sectional, case-control, or cohort study. A 6-month randomized trial of thyroxine treatment in women with mild subclinical hypothyroidism. Received Aug 21; Accepted May
PubMed Google Scholar The subclinical hypothyroidism and depression, distribution or reproduction hypothyroodism other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. T3 augmentation of antidepressant treatment in T4-replaced thyroid patients. Incident depression was defined as a score of greater than 16 according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.
For instance, Kim J. A study with postmortem cepression cortex. In such patients, neurological subclinical hypothyroidism and depression may stem from either the hyperthyroid state or the iatrogenic hypothyroidism that ensues from antithyroid treatment Acta Psychiatr. To determine the impact of the individual studies on the summary risk assessment, we performed a one-study-removed analysis by omitting one report from each rotation and re-computing the pooled estimates of the remaining studies employing the metaninf command. Abbreviations: Abbreviations:. Park YJ, et al.
For depression. Therefore, the use of various scales for the detection and quantification of depression may be limited by methodological heterogeneity, disturbing the horizontal comparisons among different studies. The methodological quality of subcliical selected RCTs was evaluated according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions based on the following aspects: generation of random sequence, distribution concealment, blinding, incomplete consequence date description, free of selective reporting, and free of other bias. Sensitivity analysis and risk of bias To determine the impact of the individual studies on the summary risk assessment, we performed a one-study-removed analysis by omitting one report from each rotation and re-computing the pooled estimates of the remaining studies employing the metaninf command.
The funnel plot is a straightforward approach of investigating whether publication bias is present. E-mail: samuelsm ohsu. A cutoff score of 16 was used to define clinically significant depression, a level that has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity
The authors declare and depression the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that depressioon be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Thyroid stimulating hormone, cognitive impairment and depression in an older Korean population. In recent years, many publications have paid increasing attention to the relationship between SCH and depression; however, these studies revealed tremendous heterogeneity in the recruited population, particularly in terms of age, gender, and depressive domains. Availability of data and materials Not applicable.
Tags: depression link research study. Aging Neurosci. The estimated SMD was 0. Subclinical hypothyroidism increases the risk for depression in the elderly.
Karege F, et al. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary Information accompanies this paper at Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the risk of depression in persons with SCH.
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Table 2 shows the anf of seven cross-sectional articles involving individuals, of whom Ann Intern Med. Neuropsychiatric aspects of hypothyroidism and treatment reversibility. Another meaningful consequence of the current meta-analysis is demonstrated by the ineffectiveness of therapy for SCH with LT4 supplementation on depression. Eur J Endocrinol. In total, articles were identified by the preliminary search of articles published by June 10, ; of these articles, were more comprehensively evaluated and 17 papers were finally selected for the meta-analysis Supplementary Figures 1. Meta-analyses are known to be confounded by the comprehensiveness of search strategy, reporting quality of included studies, publication bias and exclusion of non-English articles.
Third, L-T4, which is the suggested treatment for hypothyroidism, may be effective in improving depressive symptoms in participants with SCH if and depression association between the presence of SCH and depression will be proved. High-quality placebo-controlled studies with large sample sizes are needed. Based on these outcomes, it seems difficult to believe that L-T4 treatment truly improves depressive symptoms in SCH patients; this conclusion is supported by the similar outcomes in the L-T4 treatment and placebo groups. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Falling threshold for treatment of borderline elevated thyrotropin levels-balancing benefits and risks: evidence from a large community-based study.
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Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the risk of depression in persons with SCH. Psychological Medicine Oc Scientists found that healthy women were significantly more likely than normal men to report symptoms of hypothyroidism [v].
The PubMed, Subclinical hypothyroidism and depression, and Web of Science literature databases were searched, without restriction of language, for publications up to August In addition, the funnel plot showed a symmetric distribution. Registration is free. A Booklet for Families Created for family members of people with alcohol abuse or drug abuse problems.
BMJ— Deprsesion Ageing. Abstract Background: Thyroid function is closely associated subclinical hypothyroidism and depression neuropsychological functions, including mental state and cognitive functions. Published : 08 January Anxiety, depression, and quality of life in primary care patients. For cross-sectional studies, the common deficiency was the lack of a direct description of response rates and the completeness of data collection that could be determined. The aging thyroid.
Furthermore, several subsequent studies have investigated the role of the Wnt signalling pathway in mood diseases, such as major depression 23 and bipolar disorder Asian J. References 1. Results Study selection In total, articles were identified by the preliminary search of articles published by June 10, ; of these articles, were more comprehensively evaluated and 17 papers were finally selected for the meta-analysis Supplementary Figures 1. Eur Thyroid J. Contact USA.
Preventive Services Task Force. Patients were recruited from only 1 hospital, data regarding TSH level before the onset of depression were not available, and the subcinical included a higher number of women than men. T3 augmentation of antidepressant treatment in T4-replaced thyroid patients. Structural clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition, revised. Our findings favor early and routine screening for depression among individuals with SCH especially the elderly, to prevent morbidity and mortality.
Consistent with the diverse original reports, we applied different methods of evaluating the quality. Among these 21 studies, 8 showed significant associations between SCH and depression, while the other 13 did not show this relationship. Antithyroid medications and psychosis. Affect Disord. Roberts LM, et al.
They found that estrogen levels could affect thyroid function and contribute to thyroid disorders [xvi]. No significant difference was observed in the composite depresssion point between the L-T4 therapy group and placebo group in SCH patients Fig. This hypothesis requires further exploration in targeted populations with these polymorphisms. Fourth, none of the selected reports applied age-adjusted expected limits, resulting in the unavoidable misclassification of older adults as suffering from SCH.
Abstract Background: Although depression is associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, its relationship with subclinical hypothyroidism Subcliinical is controversial. Women also experienced subclinical hypothyroidism and depression rates of anxiety, but they had a lower alcohol use than male counterparts [iii]. Two authors Zhao and Chen independently extracted the data from the original studies using a uniform standard procedure. To determine the impact of the individual studies on the summary risk assessment, we performed a one-study-removed analysis by omitting one report from each rotation and re-computing the pooled estimates of the remaining studies employing the metaninf command. Both hypothyroidism and depression are common conditions and they have numerous things in common. Additional Information: We only recommend products that we believe in.
Hence, we performed an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the depression between these two entities and the effect of levothyroxine therapy. Future studies should focus on the underlying mechanism behind the association between SCH and depression and whether depression or other neuropsychological conditions could be treated through the supplement of L-T4. Xia Chen moc. Hennessey, J. Psychopathological and cognitive features in subclinical hypothyroidism. Register for free and gain unlimited access to:.
Additional Information: We only recommend products that we believe in. On the other hand, Jain L. Subsequently, we collected the full versions of the qualified subclinical hypothyroidism and depression. Some past observational studies reported an increased prevalence of depression in subclinical hypothyroid patients compared with the general population 1. We assessed the pooled effect size using a random effects model when considerable statistical heterogeneity was assumed; for contradistinction, we also chose a fixed effects model. Data extraction and quality assessment Two authors Zhao and Chen independently extracted the data from the original studies using a uniform standard procedure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
Journal List Front Endocrinol Lausanne v. Geriatric cohort with SCH had a 1. Gordon, J. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the risk of depression in persons with SCH.
This study had several limitations that reduce generalizability to other settings.
Thus, it is possible that certain subsets of L-T4 patients may in fact have depressive symptoms due to decreased intracellular thyroid hormone levels, although the data are quite preliminary.
Low mood depression response to Levothyroxine treatment in Indian patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Although some studies reported that L-T4 treatment has the benefit of improving depressive symptoms, the pathophysiological role of thyroid hormones in depression remains unclear 37 —
BMC Psychiatry 19, 12 Eur J Endocrinol.
Study characteristics were summarized. Hypothyroidism and depression: a therapeutic challenge.
The current article by Kim et al. If published papers only provided the percentage of depressive symptoms, the evaluator calculated the numbers of participants by the calculator in Revman version 5. Sign In or Create an Account. Clinical Endocrinology Nov;83 5 The cohort was drawn largely from employees of local companies and government agencies and their spouses and so was younger and likely healthier than the overall population. Two reviewers Zhao and Chen separately evaluated all potential titles and abstracts. Lithium increases platelet serine-9 phosphorylated GSK-3beta levels in drug-free bipolar disorder during depressive episodes.
Neuropsychiatric manifestations of thyroid disease. Psychiatric and cognitive manifestations of hypothyroidism. Minerva Endocrinol. Protein depression of beta-catenin and activation state of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in major depression. Desiccated thyroid extract compared with levothyroxine in the treatment of hypothyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW article
Depression and anxiety in different thyroid function states. Given the evidence summarized above, it is not surprising that patients with mild hypothyroidism do not reliably experience relief of affective symptoms with L-T4 therapy. Sign In.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. Last Updated on April 14, Subclinical hypothyroidism and depression link. In recent years, many publications have paid increasing attention to the relationship between SCH and depression; however, these studies revealed tremendous heterogeneity in the recruited population, particularly in terms of age, gender, and depressive domains. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar. The reality is that we will need more research on the relationship between hypothyroidism and depression to understand the underlying mechanisms and learn more about both conditions. Asian J Psychiatr.
Pract 14— Subclinical hypothyroidism: psychiatric disorders and symptoms. Is subclinical thyroid dysfunction in subclinical hypothyroidism and depression elderly associated with depression or cognitive dysfunction? Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms among the elderly: A prospective cohort study. Strengths and limitations of this meta-analysis This analysis has four main limitations.
The debilitating effect of SCH on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has gained increasing attention, suggesting that SCH is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ 1011 ]. T3 augmentation of antidepressant treatment in T4-replaced thyroid patients. On the other hand, given a reduced activity of intracerebral type II deiodinase in depression, levothyroxine therapy might be converted to rT3 that could exacerbate the existing intracerebral fT3 deficiency. Psychopathological and cognitive features in subclinical hypothyroidism. Res Synth Methods. Six studies found a higher prevalence of depression among individuals with SCH compared with controls [ 71214192324 ], although only three studies achieved statistically significant difference [ 71430 ].
Res Synth Methods. This analysis has four main limitations. The main drawback of these studies was that participants in some cohorts were not representative and outcome assessment was self-reported questionnaires ; however, this is typically inevitable for these types of studies.
Suicide attempts were assessed using a screening question instead anf a validated questionnaire, and the study did not use a healthy control group. Consistent with the distinct original data, we chose different effect models. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population division. The mean age was higher among individuals with depression than healthy controls Second, the included reports were designed as observational studies case control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies with different data collection methods retrospective and prospective.
Hypothyroidism is subclinical hypothyroidism and depression common in middle-aged and older women than in younger females. Disagreements were settled by consensus hypothyroodism the view of a third author Zhao as necessary. Thyroid Jul;19 7 Table 1 The characteristics of non-RCTs. Second, symptoms are more apparent when patients are aware of their thyroid status, suggesting that they may be related to the self-knowledge of thyroid disease. Thus, it is possible that certain subsets of L-T4 patients may in fact have depressive symptoms due to decreased intracellular thyroid hormone levels, although the data are quite preliminary.
The incidence of ischemic heart disease and mortality in people with subclinical hypothyroidism: reanalysis of the Whickham Survey cohort. The hypothyroidisn between thyroid function and depressive symptoms-the FIN-D2D population-based study. The papers were considered qualified if they met the corresponding criteria: published data, cross-sectional study, case control report, prospective study, retrospective study, RCTs, clearance and use of a unique commercial product to perform the TSH assay, specified depressive measurement and domains, and number of depressed patients included with well-described criteria for depression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism a cross-sectional study. Effects of subclinical hypothyroidism treatment on psychiatric symptoms, muscular complaints, and quality of life.
To date, there is a lack of data on the improvement of depressive symptoms with levothyroxine hypoyhyroidism among individuals with coexistent SCH. The incidence and prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Europe: a meta-analysis. Keywords: Depression; Levothyroxine; Subclinical hypothyroidism; Thyroid stimulating hormone. However, this is not a universal finding. Results: Twenty-one studies were included in the systematic review, with a total ofsubjects from 7 studies being pooled for the meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of depression.
Santin A. Depression and other mood disorders are linked to several thyroid abnormalities. A unique and valuable addition was their inclusion of a validated questionnaire for perceived stress, as that is an important confounder for depressive symptoms.
Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the risk of depression in persons with SCH. The studies used various depressive tests to assess a wide scope of depressive domains. Association between subclinical hypothyroidism and depression: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Among these studies, 14 studies presented the mean scores of depression scales of each group or only provided the regression results without details, which hinders access to data analysis. Depressive episodes accompanied by anxiety and the risk of committing suicide are considerable predictors that differ according to the age of the subjects. Figure 2. Checklists of methodological issues for review authors to consider when including non-randomized studies in systematic reviews.
Low mood and response to Levothyroxine treatment in Indian patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Depression this study, 92, young to middle-aged adults without depression or known thyroid disease at baseline were examined at least twice in a 4-year time period. Association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms in the Korean adult population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Practice Nursing ;14 7. Occup Med Oxford.
Subclinical hypothyroidism and incident depression in young and middle-age adults. This meta-analysis demonstrates that there is a higher prevalence of depression in and depression with SCH, raising some suggestions for clinical practice. Kim J-M. Explains how family therapy sessions are run and who conducts them, describes a typical session, and provides information on its effectiveness in recovery. The funnel plot is a straightforward approach of investigating whether publication bias is present.
No health without mental health. Table 1 Characteristics of included studies. Exercise performance in young and middle-aged female patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Endocr Res. Clinical manifestations of major depressive disorder MDD such as suicide attempts and psychiatric symptoms may be associated with severe subclinical hypothyroidism SCHaccording to study results published in the Journal of Affective Disorders. Further studies among various patient populations are needed to confirm the findings of this study. Serotonin exerts a repressive effect on thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH excretion, suggesting the presence of a feedback loop that permits the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis if serotonin values in the brain are relatively low.
JAMA Neurol. SE, standard error; OR, odds ratio. Psychiatry Investig. In one large cross-sectional study, there was no association between the Thr92Ala polymorphism in deiodinase 2 and quality of life in euthyroid patients 18 subclinical hypothyroidism and depression, but in another study, L-T4—treated patients with the same polymorphism had decrements in psychological well-being and mood compared with patients without this polymorphism We found an insignificant difference for the composite endpoint: standard mean difference SMD of 0. A paradoxical difference in relationship between anxiety, depression and thyroid function in subjects on and not on T4: findings from the HUNT study. Introduction Thyroid function is closely associated with neuropsychological functions, including mental state and cognitive functions 1.
Additionally, there was no link between thyroid hormone levels and an increased risk of incident depression in euthyroid participants. Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in depression cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of depression is slightly higher in persons with SCH, especially in persons above 50 years of age, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism might be a risk factor for depression. What are the hours of operation?
For instance, a study about gender differences in depression and anxiety, based on the Netherlands population, found depression women reported a younger age of onset of single and recurrent major depressive disorder MDD than men. Neuropsychological function and symptoms in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of thyroxine treatment. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analysis. Search Menu.
SCH and depression hypothyroodism diagnosed according to the specific diagnostic criteria in each included study Table 1 and the controls for these studies included participants with euthyroid function. Endocr Res. Notes Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Previous studies investigating possible links between depression and reference-range thyroid hormone levels have been variable, although the largest and best conducted reported no correlations 1. Low mood and response to Levothyroxine treatment in Indian patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.
Furthermore, lower serotonin levels are observed in brains with hypothyroidism. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms among the elderly: a prospective cohort study. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. De Carvalho G. We used precise methodology.
While there have been few studies on the role of subclinical hypothyroidism in the development of depression, this topic remains controversial. Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author. This lack of association was similar throughout various age and sex groups and was not affected when adjusting for potential confounders. Our findings can potentially influence the clinical practice and improve the quality of life of patients. Many papers have investigated whether SCH promotes depression-like behaviour in rats in conjunction with slight hyper-activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis.
Asian J Psychiatr. Two reviewers LHH and LLL extracted data from eligible studies independently using standard template, including authors, country of study conduct, study design, sample size, age, mean TSH levels, prevalence of major depression disorder MDD and the depression scores based on the different depression scoring systems.
Depressive episodes accompanied by anxiety and the risk of committing suicide are considerable predictors that differ according to the age of the subjects.
However, the use of levothyroxine therapy among people with depression need to be considered carefully on an individual basis, weighing the risks and benefits of the treatment.
Gender differences in major depressive disorder: results from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. Affect Disord.
The authors also acknowledge some limitations, including the relatively short follow-up period. Age Ageing. Memory improvement with treatment of hypothyroidism. Clinical utility of the item geriatric depression scale GDS for use with young and middle-aged adults.
There was no difference in the mean TSH level between individuals with depression and healthy controls 2.
J Affect Disord. The authors conclusively found that there was no association between the presence of subclinical hypothyroidism and the development of depression during a mean follow-up of 2 years by the CES-D cutoff of 16 in this large cohort.
Ge, J. Footnotes Funding.
In a seminal series of nine subclinical hypothyroidism and depression with refractory subcliincal, on top of antidepressant and levothyroxine therapy, additional administration of liothyronine was associated with marked improvement in the symptoms of depression in seven of them [ 57 ]. The sensitivity bias analysis of these original articles revealed no variation in the orientation of the OR when each publication was omitted Supplementary Figure 3.
Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Fjaellegaard et al.
Endocr Rev. Figure 3. Dperession clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Evidence shows that hypothyroidism is six times more common in women than it is in men [vi]. Another interesting phenomenon was observed in terms of age stratification. Future studies should focus on whether depression or other neuropsychological conditions could be improved by treating thyroid dysfunction and any potential mechanism.
Sometimes, the lack hypothyroudism understanding the causes of certain symptoms can impair the treatment and weaken psychological wellbeing of a patient. Background: Although depression is associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, its relationship with subclinical hypothyroidism SCH is controversial. Shan 1. For example:. Subclinical hypothyroidism and incident depression in young and middle-age adults. Subclinical hypothyroidism: psychiatric disorders and symptoms. Why are we talking about it in this article?