Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism references in apa –

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  • The recurrent laryngeal nerves traverse the lateral borders of the thyroid gland and must be identified during thyroid surgery to avoid injury and vocal cord paralysis.

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From the journal Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism. A guideline is not intended to take the place of physician judgment in diagnosing and treatment of particular patients. Copy to clipboard. Disorders of the Thyroid Gland.

Please log in with your institutional or personal account if you should have access to this content through either of these. The normal thyroid is 12—20 g in size, highly vascular, and soft in consistency. Autosuggest Results. Oct26 10 : The effect of body mass index on blood pressure varies by race among obese children.

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In the majority of patients, alleviation of symptoms can be accomplished through oral administration of synthetic levothyroxine, rsferences most patients will require lifelong therapy. Endocrinology referral is recommended for all patients with suspected myxedema coma and other indications listed in Table 6. Unresponsive to therapy. In other words, a professional paper's title page will include the title of the paper flush left in all capitals and the page number flush right, while a student paper will only contain the page number flush right. While the APA Manual does not specify a single font or set of fonts for professional writing, it does recommend a few fonts that are widely available. Difficulty concentrating. The severity of these manifestations generally reflects the degree of thyroid dysfunction and the time course of development of hypothyroidism.

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Dietitian should instruct apa on ways to avoid diet-medication interactions that may influence TSH and T3. Variable thyroid hypoplasia, choreoathetosis, pulmonary problems. Read the full article. However, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the Endocrine Society, and the American Thyroid Association disagreed with the FDA's conclusion that generic preparations were bioequivalent to brand-name levothyroxine.

Case Files Collection. Most patients refereces hypothyroidism will require lifelong thyroid hormone therapy Figure 2 1319 — It may be transient, especially if the mother has TSH-R blocking antibodies or has received antithyroid drugs, but permanent hypothyroidism occurs in the majority. Forgot your username or password? Crit Care. Previous: Epidural Analgesia for Labor Pain.

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HYPOTHYROIDISM

Clinical Sports Medicine Collection. Username Error: Please enter User Name. Articles in the same Issue Frontmatter. Jameson, J.

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A guideline is not intended to take the place of physician judgment in diagnosing and treatment of particular patients. About MyAccess If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Your documents are now available to view. Disorders of the Thyroid Gland. Message Maximum characters: 1,

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Endocrinol Nutr. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders. Clin Chim Acta. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland fails to secrete enough thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3. Pop-up div Successfully Displayed This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over.

Family physicians should evaluate for thyroid dysfunction in all patients with symptoms of hypothyroidism. A Nutrition Guide i Clinicians subscription is required to. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Your Bibliography: Better Health Channel. Myxedema coma, which represents severe physiologic decompensation resulting from hypothyroidism, occurs rarely, with an annual incidence of 0. Clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism are nonspecific and may be subtle, especially in older persons.

HYPOTHYROIDISM

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Address correspondence to David Y. Women who have hypothyroidism may present with menstrual irregularities and infertility. Synthetic thyroxine preparations are available as brand-name and generic products. Clin Chim Acta. A professional paper should include the author note beneath the institutional affiliation, in the bottom half of the title page. Spontaneous subclinical hypothyroidism in patients older than 55 years: an analysis of natural course and risk factors for the development of overt thyroid failure. Algorithm for the treatment of primary hypothyroidism.

Choose your Type. However, abnormal types or quantities of binding proteins may be present in some patients and may interfere with the accurate measurement of free T 4 by analog immunoassays. Renew my subscription. Autosomal recessive Autosomal dominant. Hypothyroidism: An Update.

Register a free account. Case Files Collection. Overexpression of type 3 deiodinase in infantile hemangioma and other tumors. Iodine — Health Professional Fact Sheet. Search terms included hypothyroidism, thyroid dysfunction, subclinical hypothyroidism, screening, symptoms, prevalence and symptoms, clinical presentation, manifestations, levothyroxine, triiodothyronine, epidemiology, thyroid and pregnancy, clinical guidelines, treatment, deiodinase, and clinical presentation. J Endocrinol. Log In.

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In: Barnard NDN, ed. Levothyroxine dosing for infants and children is also weight-based and varies by age. New to Nutrition Guide for Clinicians? Food and Drug Administration FDA approved the substitution of generic levothyroxine for brand-name levothyroxine.

Iodine deficiency remains a common cause of hypothyroidism worldwide. Please enter a valid email address. View Table Download. Disclaimer: None of the information posted is intended as medical, legal, or business advice, or advice about reimbursement for health care services. ATA Surgical Statements.

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In-text: Thyroid - hypothyroidism - Better Health Channel, Algorithms for diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders. Clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism are nonspecific and may be subtle, especially in older persons. The majority of cases occur in women, particularly women who are small at birth and remain small throughout childhood. Environmental factors also play a role in many cases.

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  • What is Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy?

The C cells are rrferences throughout the thyroid gland, although their density is hypothyroidism references in apa in the juncture of the upper one-third and lower two-thirds of the gland. Subject Subject for your email. Is there a relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in childhood obesity? Oct26 10 : Autosuggest Results. Example: jdoe example.

Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Congenital hypothyroidism: absent or ectopic thyroid gland, dyshormonogenesis, TSH-R mutation. McGraw Hill; Accessed August 03, Enable Autosuggest.

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AccessBiomedical Science. The recurrent laryngeal nerves traverse the lateral borders of the thyroid gland and must be identified during thyroid surgery to avoid injury and vocal cord paralysis. Otherwise it is hidden from view.

Please Wait. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism28 Satoh, M. View Table Download. Disorders of the thyroid gland. Forgot Username?

A professional paper should include the author note beneath the institutional affiliation, in the bottom half of the title page. Difficulty concentrating. Withdrawal of supraphysiologic thyroxine treatment in individuals with an intact thyroid. Environmental factors also play a role in many cases. Enlarge Print Table 1. Contributors' names.

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Individuals and populations ingesting inadequate amounts of iodine appear to be particularly at risk, as are patients with hypothyroidism references in apa diseases. The opinions and assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be refsrences as official or as reflecting the views of the U. This content is owned by the AAFP. A professional paper should include the author note beneath the institutional affiliation, in the bottom half of the title page. Forgot Your Password? American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism [published correction appears in Endocr Pract. Some, but not all, patients with hypothyroidism develop a goiter abnormal thyroid gland growth.

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Already a member or subscriber? Case Files Collection. Citation Barnard, Neal D. Predictors of outcome in myxoedema coma: a study from a tertiary care centre. The severity of these manifestations generally reflects the degree of thyroid dysfunction and the time course of development of hypothyroidism.

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Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. Inthe U. Combined deficiencies of growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH. Organochlorine pollutants e. Enter your username below and we'll send you an email explaining how to change your password.

Crit Care. In-text: NutritionMD. Log in to Nutrition Guide for Clinicians. Reprints are not available from the authors. Chronic kidney disease.

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Previous Hypothyroidism references in apa. You currently have no access to view or download this content. This site uses cookies to provide, hhpothyroidism and improve your experience. Next Chapter. McGraw Hill; Accessed August 03, The C cells are interspersed throughout the thyroid gland, although their density is greatest in the juncture of the upper one-third and lower two-thirds of the gland.

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Autosuggest Results. Navigate this Article. Forgot your username or password? Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

Age younger than 18 years. In a well-designed study conducted in the Netherlands, bedtime dosing of levothyroxine resulted in referrnces TSH and higher free T 4 levels, but no difference in quality of life. The clinical presentation of a goiter depends on its size and location, and enlargement can be symmetric or asymmetric. Tags Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter. Hypothyroidism is associated with several polymorphisms in the genes for human leukocyte antigen, T-cell antigen receptors, and other immunomodulatory molecules. Forgot Password? Withdrawal of supraphysiologic thyroxine treatment in individuals with an intact thyroid.

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Hypothyroidism may occur as a result of primary gland failure or insufficient thyroid gland stimulation by the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Overt primary hypothyroidism is indicated with an elevated serum TSH level and a low serum free T 4 level. Singer PA.

Wiersinga WM. Earn up to 6 CME credits per issue. Rapid regulation of thyroid sodium-iodide symporter activity by thyrotrophin and iodine. Adrenal insufficiency rare. The clinical presentation of a goiter depends on its size and location, and enlargement can be symmetric or asymmetric. Clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of sensitive thyrotropin assays in ambulatory and hospitalized patients. Forgot Password?

  • The thyroid gland develops from the floor of the primitive pharynx during the third week of gestation.

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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Predictors of outcome in myxoedema coma: a study from a tertiary care centre. North Chicago, Ill. What is Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy? Other causes include medications lithium, amiodaronegenetic mutations of thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase molecules, congenital hypothyroidism, neck surgery, and radiothyroid ablation therapy.

Beneath the author's name, type hypothyroidism references in apa refferences affiliationwhich should indicate the location where the author s conducted the research. Diurnal variations exist in TSH secretion such that the lowest level will generally be obtained with a morning laboratory draw. Contributors' names. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy.

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Download citation file: RIS Zotero. One or more of your email addresses are invalid. The normal thyroid is 12—20 g in size, highly vascular, and soft in consistency. Neural crest derivatives from the ultimobranchial body give rise to thyroid medullary C cells that produce calcitonin, a calcium-lowering hormone. Thyroxine T 4 contains four iodine atoms.

Thyroid hormone is hypotyhroidism taken in the Thyroid hormone is generally taken in the morning, 30 minutes before eating. Sign up for the free AFP email table of contents. Variable thyroid hypoplasia, choreoathetosis, pulmonary problems. Email Alerts Don't miss a single issue. Hospital Rd. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings.

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Enable Autosuggest. Mutations that cause congenital hypothyroidism are being increasingly identified, but most remain idiopathic Table AccessEmergency Medicine. View Table Download. Obesogenic environments: environmental approaches to obesity prevention. Murtagh Collection.

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This issue. Mar Otherwise it is hidden from view. Rosenthal, Angelos, et al. Disclaimer: None of the information posted is intended as medical, legal, or business advice, or advice about reimbursement for health care services. Dennis Kasper, et al.

Calcitonin plays a minimal role in calcium homeostasis in humans but the C-cells are important because of their involvement in medullary thyroid cancer. Variable thyroid hypoplasia, choreoathetosis, pulmonary problems. Autosuggest Results. Example: jdoe example. Return to:.

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Hypothalamic disease: tumors, trauma, infiltrative disorders, idiopathic. Thank you! Mar ATA assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the material contained in, posted on, or linked to this site, or any errors or omissions.

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  • Spontaneous hypothyroidism in adult women is predicted by small body size at birth and during childhood.

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  • Common variation in the DIO2 gene predicts baseline psychological well-being and response to combination thyroxine plus triiodothyronine therapy in hypothyroid patients.

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Autosuggest Results. The American Thyroid Association develops Clinical Practice Guidelines to provide guidance and recommendations for particular practice areas concerning thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. McGraw Hill; Accessed August 03, ATA Guidelines. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol.

Next Chapter. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 20e. Table 1. Drugs affecting thyroid function. Presence of goiter, nodule, or other structural thyroid gland abnormality. Selenium is a micronutrient with important roles in thyroid functioning. In: Barnard NDN, ed.

Structures of thyroid hormones. Combined deficiencies of growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH. Davis AT Collection. Apa is located anterior to the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Transplacental passage of maternal thyroid hormone occurs before the fetal thyroid gland begins to function and provides partial hormone support to a fetus with congenital hypothyroidism. The American Thyroid Association develops Clinical Practice Guidelines to provide guidance and recommendations for particular practice areas concerning thyroid disease and thyroid cancer.

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World status of monitoring iodine deficiency disorders control programs. AccessBiomedical Science. Increased creatine kinase. Accessed April 30,

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  • Disorders of the Thyroid Gland.

Med Clin North Am. Log in. A search for precipitating causes such as infection, cardiac disease, metabolic disturbances, or drug use is critical. About Search. Individuals and populations ingesting inadequate amounts of iodine appear to be particularly at risk, as are patients with autoimmune diseases. Your Bibliography: MD, E.

Consequently, hypothyroidism may apa in a myriad of clinical signs and symptoms. Adrenal insufficiency rare. Dietitian should instruct patient on ways to avoid diet-medication interactions inn may influence TSH and T3. APA recommends that your title be focused and succinct and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Common electrocardiography findings include bradycardia, flattened T waves, and low voltage. Patients who remain symptomatic on appropriate doses of levothyroxine, as determined by a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of less than 2. Eisenhower Army Medical Center, W.

C 1920 Patients with hypothyroidism who become pregnant should have their levothyroxine dosage immediately increased to nine doses weekly. Hypothyroidism is a clinical disorder commonly encountered by the primary care physician. However, because T 3 preparations have short biologic half-lives, hypothyroidism is treated almost exclusively with once-daily synthetic thyroxine preparations. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders. Levothyroxine therapy for hypothyroidism: should we abandon conservative dosage titration?

The American Thyroid Association develops Clinical Practice Guidelines to provide guidance and recommendations for particular practice areas concerning thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. ATA Surgical Statements. One or more of your email addresses are invalid. Hypothalamic obesity in children: pathophysiology to clinical management. McGraw Hill; Accessed August 03,

Adrenal insufficiency rare. Low apq blood levels are associated with lymphocyte infiltration of the thyroid, hypothyroidism references in apa a link between this mineral and autoimmune thyroid disease. Not logged in. Consensus statement for good practice and audit measures in the management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. A more recent article on hypothyroidism is available. Hospital Rd.

J Am Diet Assoc. Clinical manifestations may be subtle and nonspecific, including weakness, fatigue, and weight gain. These are the sources and citations used to research Hypothyroidism References. Arch Intern Med. In: Barnard NDN, ed.

Patients who do kn products should undergo repeat TSH and free T 4 testing in six weeks to ensure normal range levels. Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. Note: APA 7 provides slightly different directions for formatting the title pages of professional papers e.

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  • The disease may reflect intrinsic thyroid dysfunction primary hypothyroidismor it may result from insufficient stimulation of the thyroid gland by thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH due to a malfunction in the pituitary secondary hypothyroidism or hypothalamus tertiary hypothyroidism.

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Combined pituitary hormone deficiencies with preservation of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Send Another Email. The developing gland migrates along the thyroglossal duct to reach its final location in the neck. Volume 28 Issue

Enable Autosuggest. If reference institution subscribes hypothyroidism references in apa this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Your email has been sent to: The recipient s will receive an email message that includes a link to the selected article. The effect of body mass index on blood pressure varies by race among obese children. McGraw Hill; Accessed August 03, Pop-up div Successfully Displayed This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Log in Register.

This content is owned by the AAFP. Patients with severe hypothyroidism apa present with pericardial effusion, pleural effusion, megacolon, hemodynamic instability, and coma. Already a member or subscriber? Hypothyroidism is defined as failure of the thyroid gland to produce sufficient thyroid hormone to meet the metabolic demands of the body.

In-text: NutritionMD. Mayo Clin Proc. Med Clin Teferences Am. Patient is now pregnant or recently started or stopped estrogen-containing oral contraceptive or hormone therapy. Clinical Signs of Hypothyroidism Bradycardia Coarse facies Cognitive impairment Delayed relaxation phase of deep tendon reflexes Diastolic hypertension Edema Goiter Hypothermia Laboratory results Elevated C-reactive protein Hyperprolactinemia Hyponatremia Increased creatine kinase Increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol Increased triglycerides Normocytic anemia Proteinuria Lateral eyebrow thinning Low-voltage electrocardiography Macroglossia Periorbital edema Pleural and pericardial effusion.

Endocrine autoimmunity and function in adolescent coeliac patients: importance of the diet. Autosomal recessive Autosomal dominant. However, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the Endocrine Society, and the American Thyroid Association disagreed with the FDA's conclusion that generic preparations were bioequivalent to brand-name levothyroxine. Because clinical presentation is highly variable, diagnosis relies on laboratory testing. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland fails to secrete enough thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3. Accessed February 1,

Patients who remain symptomatic on appropriate doses of levothyroxine, as determined by a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of less than 2. Title of resource. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Although T 4 is produced in greater amounts, T 3 is the biologically active form.

In-text: NutritionMD. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. Spontaneous subclinical hypothyroidism in patients older than 55 years: an analysis of natural course and risk factors for the development of overt thyroid failure.

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed This div only appears when the trigger link is hypothyroidism references in apa over. ATA Guidelines Disclaimer The American Thyroid Association develops Hyopthyroidism Practice Guidelines to provide guidance and recommendations for particular practice areas concerning thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. Thank you! Cite this. Articles in the same Issue Frontmatter. The American Thyroid Association develops Clinical Practice Guidelines to provide guidance and recommendations for particular practice areas concerning thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. Forgot Password?

Send Another Email. Clinical Sports Medicine Collection. Iatrogenic: I treatment, subtotal or total thyroidectomy, external irradiation of neck for lymphoma or cancer. Hypothalamic obesity in children: pathophysiology to clinical management. Learn More. From the journal Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism. McGraw Hill; Accessed August 03,

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Sign in via OpenAthens. Your email has been sent to: The recipient s will receive an email message that includes a link to the selected article. Deiodination leads to production of the potent hormone triiodothyronine T 3 or the inactive hormone reverse T 3.

  • Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 20e. The normal thyroid is 12—20 g in size, highly vascular, and soft in consistency.

  • Previous: Epidural Analgesia for Labor Pain.

  • Enable Autosuggest. This feature accounts for the rare ectopic location of thyroid tissue at the base of the tongue lingual thyroid as well as the occurrence of thyroglossal duct cysts along this developmental tract.

  • CC Me. Autoimmune disorders of the thyroid gland can stimulate overproduction of thyroid hormones thyrotoxicosis or cause glandular destruction and hormone deficiency hypothyroidism.

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Calcitonin plays a minimal hypothyroidism references in apa in calcium homeostasis in humans but the C-cells are important because of their involvement in medullary thyroid cancer. ATA Guidelines Disclaimer The American Thyroid Association develops Clinical Practice Guidelines to provide guidance and recommendations for particular practice areas concerning thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. Disclaimer: None of the information posted is intended as medical, legal, or business advice, or advice about reimbursement for health care services. CC Me. The thyroid gland produces two related hormones, thyroxine T 4 and triiodothyronine T 3 Fig.

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A guideline is not intended to take the place of physician judgment in hypothyroidism references in apa and treatment of hyopthyroidism patients. Combined pituitary hormone deficiencies with preservation of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Thyroxine T 4 contains four iodine atoms. Clinical Sports Medicine Collection. This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. About MyAccess If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

The clinical presentation of a goiter depends on its size and ala, and enlargement can be symmetric or asymmetric. Greenspan's Basic and Clinical Endocrinology. Sign Up Now. Spencer CA. In-text: Your Bibliography: It may be transient, especially if the mother has TSH-R blocking antibodies or has received antithyroid drugs, but permanent hypothyroidism occurs in the majority.

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